Student Referencing Guide

Table of Contents Show

 

How to use this guide and some tips

Section 1 introduces you to some common words and terms used in referencing, talks about writing in general and gives you a  referencing checklist to follow.

Section 2 shows you how to reference according to the way you are using source material.

Section 3 gives you a detailed example so you can see how the reference will work.

Overview

The Sydney Institute uses a social science referencing style.  This has references in two parts

    1. A reference in the text gives author, publication date and sometimes page number. They are enclosed in brackets and appear at the end of the sentence.
    2. A reference list at the end of the paper gives full details of the reference.

There are very many different variations of referencing styles.  At Sydney Institute you will use this guide.

Before starting to write, you should look through this guide and get a feel for its organisation and structure.

Remember

    1. Accurate citation is essential
    2. Full citation is essential
    3. Avoid superfluous punctuation
    4. Avoid Latin expressions
    5. Avoid jargon

Plain Language

Your writing should be clear and easily understood by anyone who can read.  Avoid jargon and over technical language.  Avoid too long sentences. If what you have written is confusing to your reader – rewrite it!

Non-discriminatory language

Your writing should be gender neutral.  You can refer to the Chair instead of the Chairman.  ‘He or she’ is better than ‘he’.  Parallel treatment is also important – ‘husband and wife’ instead of ‘man and wife’.

Page and paragraph numbers

When using abbreviation for page, chapter and so on there is a space between the p and the number.  Do not add a full stop etc.

p 30    ch 3

When more than one page is referred to, retain only those digits needed for clarity. Exception – where there are four or more digits, use the full numbers.

253, 262-67

4195-5201

Quotations

A quotation involves reproducing the exact words from a source. Quotations must be carefully selected and copied from the original source material, and should be sparingly used to support your arguments or the key points you wish to make.

If you wish to use a short quotation, you must put single quotation marks (‘ ’) around the words of the original author and integrate the quotation into your sentence.

Speaking to the audience, Michael repeated ‘IT is the way of the future…’.

For long quotations (over 30 words) single quotation marks are not used. Instead you must indent the quote from the left and right margins.

As part of the overview of history, it was noted

IT is the way of the future.  It remains the one filed that is immune to change and will always be in demand.  Students are well served if they are technically minded that this industry …

Summary or paraphrase

A paraphrase means saying something in another way without changing its meaning, for example, using your own words to express the ideas of an author. A paraphrase may or may not be shorter than the original.

A summary is similar to a paraphrase except it is always much shorter than the original. Summarising involves ‘compressing’ large amounts of information into usually no more than a few sentences. It involves picking out the main ideas, leaving out the details, and putting the main ideas into your own words.

 Before you submit, check the following: Yes No
1. In-text references
     Quotations
Did you put single inverted commas ‘…’ around the author’s or source’s original words in each short quotation?
Did you integrate each short quotation into a sentence?
If you used a long quotation (more than 30 words), did you indent the quotation from the left and right margins (without using single inverted commas)?
Did you include the following information near each quotation:

•       author’s family name or source?

•       year of publication?

•       page number(s) where you found the quotation (unless a web page)?

     Paraphrases and summaries
Did you put the original author’s or source’s words into your own?
Did you include the following information near each paraphrase and summary:

•       author’s family name or source?

•       year of publication?

•       page number(s) where relevant?

If you used more than one reference for your paraphrase or summary, did you list the authors/sources alphabetically?
2. Reference list (at the end of your assignment)
Have you included the heading Reference list immediately before your list of references at the end of your assignment?
Have you arranged all your references alphabetically?
If you used multiple references by the same author/source, have you listed them chronologically (for example: Lee 2009 … Lee 2010)?
If an author (or source) has more than one publication in the same year, did you use suffixes a, b, c to distinguish them (for example: Smith 2010a … Smith 2010b … Smith 2010c)?
Did you check each comma, full stop, bracket and your use of italics and capitalisation?
Did you check that all URLs are not underlined (hyperlinks removed)?

Examples – when and how to reference

You must reference any information or ideas that you use in your assignments which are not your own and which are not general knowledge.

Placement of in-text references

In-text references must be placed within a sentence. That is, they must be placed before the full sto

There are two ways of formatting in-text references: Author (Date) and (Author Date).

Author (Date) is used to emphasise the author. It is often used when comparing studies or information from different sources. Usually, one author’s name is near the beginning of a sentence. For example:

According to Jones (2007) … . However, a more recent study by Henderson (2011) showed that …

The (Author Date) format is used to show the source of the idea or information you are using. The reference should be placed immediately after the idea or information that you have used. It is often placed at the end of a sentence. When using more than one source in a sentence, each reference should be placed immediately after the idea or information you have used. For example:

Mergers and acquisitions often fail to achieve expected synergies (Crannock 2008), but when their goals, and the strategies to achieve them, are objectively assessed, they are much more likely to lead to growth and increased shareholder value (Benson and Hodge 2010).

Summarising a source

When you summarise a source, the in-text reference should be placed near the beginning of the very first sentence of the paragraph. The first and second sentences should very clearly indicate that you are writing about the source. For example:

Lane (2008) does not agree with the critics of state-led capitalism in Russia. Instead he thinks that the Putin model, while not perfect, is a realistic way to develop Russia’s resources for the following three reasons. First, it is based on the strong and accepted influence of the state in the private sector. Second, he believes that this form of state-led capitalism is a great improvement on the ‘chaotic’ capitalism that characterised the early period of transition. Finally, he concludes that there will not be any great renationalisation of industry.

Reference list

Lane D, 2008, ‘From chaotic to state-led capitalism’, New Political Economy, vol 13, no 2, pp 177-184.

Paraphrasing a source

When you paraphrase a specific part of a source (as opposed to summarising the entire text), the in-text reference must include a page number or numbers showing where the material came from. For example:

The Allen Consulting Group (2006, p 1) presented a convincing argument that skills matter to employers.

Reference list

Allen Consulting Group, 2006, World class skills for world class industries: employers’ perspectives on skilling in Australia, Allen Consulting Group, Sydney.

Short quotation

Quotations of less than about 30 words are always integrated within your own sentence. Whenever you quote, you must use your source’s exact words, and in the in-text reference you must include the page number where the quoted words were found. For example:

Many questions have been raised about issues concerning ‘skills and skill development’ (Fenwick and Hall 2006, p 571).

Note: The only exception to this rule is when your source is a web page and/or has no page numbers.

Reference list

Fenwick T and Hall R, 2006, ‘Skills in the knowledge economy: changing meanings in changing conditions’, Journal of Industrial Relations, vol 48, no 5, pp 575-592.

Long quotation

Long quotations, typically those longer than about 30 words, must be indented from both margins. Word users can do this by applying the built-in style ‘Block Text’ (but note you may have to modify the default style to remove borders and italicisation).  For example:

There has been some debate within the academic community in recent decades about how to best define the term globalisation. Given how contested this term has become, the following definition of globalisation will be used in this assignment:

Globalisation involves the creation of linkages or interconnections between nations. It is usually understood as a process in which barriers (physical, political, economic, cultural) separating different regions of the world are reduced or removed, thereby stimulating exchanges in goods, services, money, and people (Hamilton and Webster 2009, p 5).

Reference list

Hamilton L and Webster P, 2009, The international business environment, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Quoting reported speech

Sometimes you may want to quote the words spoken by a person as reported in a newspaper or news source.

To do this, give the title and name of the person, and reference the source as usual. For example:

Harvey Norman Executive Chairman Gerry Harvey recently stated that ‘there are more retailers currently under pressure than I’ve ever seen’ (Kruger 2012).

Reference list

Kruger C, 2012, ‘Harvey warns of more failures in store’, Sydney Morning Herald, 28 November, viewed 29 November 2012, <http://www.smh.com.au/business/harvey-warns-of-more-failures-in-store-201211272a5pg.html>

Modifying quotations

Sometimes you may need to modify a quotation by changing or inserting one or more words either to make it grammatically correct within your own sentence, or to clarify an ambiguous place name, or to change capitalisation. To do this, place square brackets around the inserted text.

For example: ‘ … resided near Perth [Scotland]’.

Sometimes you may want to omit parts of a quotation. To do this, put an ellipsis (…) in their place.

For example: ‘For most of the super-rich, status symbols are not enough … [w]hat matters most is [their] reputation.’

Corporate authors (when there is no named author)

If your source is published either in print or on the Internet by a recognised organisation but has no personal author, then it can be referenced by using the name of organisation that published the work. This applies to publications by newspapers, associations, companies, organisations and government departments. It does not apply to journal articles.

Examples: Qantas 2010, Hewlett Packard 2011, United Nations 2007, New York Times 2012.

Using more than one source within the same in-text reference

If you are using more than one source to support your argument, they must be listed alphabetically within the in-text reference. For example:

Mergers and acquisitions can benefit the organisation, but care must be taken assessing the synergy between the companies before the deal is finalised (Needle 2010, Wiklund and Shepherd 2009).

Reference list

Needle D, 2010, Business in context, 5th ed, Cengage Learning, Hampshire.

Wiklund J and Shepherd D, 2009, ‘The effectiveness of alliances and acquisitions: the role of resource combination activities’, Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, vol 33, no 1, pp 193-212.

Using the same author more than once in the same in-text reference

Sometimes you may need to reference the same author but for different dates. For example:

Apple’s recent annual reports sow a steady decline in profits (Apple 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013).

Page numbers and ranges in in-text references

For in-text referencing use ‘p’ for ‘page’ and ‘pp’ for ‘page range’. For example:

If the quotation was found on page 63: Jones (2010, p 63) or (Jones 2010, p 63).

If the quotation ran over the page break: Jones (2010, pp 63-64) or (Jones 2010, pp 63-64).

If the quotation is not from sequential pages: Jones (2010, pp 42, 63-67) or (Jones 2010, pp 42, 63-67).

Important: Page numbers are required for all in-text quotations and paraphrases, except when your source does not have page numbers, such as a web page or multimedia or any other online source without pages, or when you are summarising the entire text.

Page numbers and ranges in reference list entries

Do not add the page numbers or ranges used in your in-text references to your reference list entries.

URLs in reference list entries

When the source is found online (on the Internet) you need to include the URL in its reference list entry.

For example: <http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/01/opinion/01iht-edyan01.html>

Important: If when you paste a URL into your document it becomes an underlined hyperlink, you must remove the hyperlink (which will remove the underlining). This is to ensure readability.

Most word processing programs, like Microsoft Word, have an option to turn off automatic generation of hyperlinks when URLs are pasted.

Using the same source more than once (reference list)

When you use the same source more than once in your assignment, you must only list the source once in your reference list.

Sources with more than one author

In both in-text references and the reference list the order of the authors should be exactly as shown on the title page of the source.

Note – it is family name, space, initials.  No dots or other requirements.

Authors In-text reference Reference list
1 Finch (2007) proposes that … …. (Finch 2007). Finch J, 2007, …
2  … high success rate (Jones and Alchin 2008). According to Jones and Alchin (2008) … Jones P and Alchin J,  2008, …
3 … result (Hanson, Peters and O’Reilly 2010).  Hanson, Peters and O’Reilly (2010) report… Hanson JF, Peters O and O’Reilly M, 2010, …
4  or more … consolidation (Rozenberg et al 2017).

Rozenberg et al (2017) observe that when…

Rozenberg M, Deudney D, Leverett G and Strange P, 2017, ….

Sources with same author(s) and year

To distinguish each source, add a suffix (e.g. 2010a, 2010b) to both the in-text reference and the corresponding reference list entry dates. Reference list items are in the same order as referenced in your assignment, earliest first. You also use this method when different authors have the same family name:

Linklater (2002a) states that … improvements of up to 80 percent have been observed (Linklater 2002b).

Reference list

Linklater P, 2002a, Workflow analysis: an introduction, Faber, Sydney.

Linklater P, 2002b, ‘Enterprise content management and productivity’, Journal of Process Management, vol 14, no 3, pp 1023-1047.

Secondary sources (a source referenced within another source)

Referencing a source that is referenced within the source you are using is also referred to as ‘referencing a secondary source’. In this example your source is Dwyer:

Employability skills are described as ‘those skills essential for employment and for personal development’ (Gibbs 2004 cited in Dwyer 2008, p 61).

OR

Gibbs (2004) describes employability skills as ‘those skills essential for employment and for personal development’ (cited in Dwyer 2008, p 61).

Reference list

Dwyer J, 2008, The business communication handbook, 8th ed., Pearson Education Australia, Frenchs Forest.

Use of & (ampersand)

Use ‘and’ instead of ‘&’, except when ‘&’ is used in the source’s title, publisher or database name.

For example: Smith and Jones (2009); Journal of Banking & Finance.

Use of ibid.

Do not use ‘ibid.’ when using any in-text referencing style.

Names with titles, honorifics or hyphens

Titles and honorifics

Titles such as Sir, Lord, Dame, Princess, and honorifics such as AO, CBE etc. are not used in references.  For example, Susan Adele Greenfield’s full title is Baroness Professor Greenfield CBE, but she would be referenced in-text as simply (Greenfield 2002) and in a reference list as: Greenfield, S. A. 2002, …

Hyphens

Hyphenated family names are not changed: (Armstrong-Jones 2001), Armstrong-Jones S, 2001, … Hyphenated given names are converted to initials: Park, Kuen-Yong becomes Park,KY

Names with particles (Dutch, Flemish, French, German); suffixes; ‘St.’; Irish & Scots names

Dutch, Flemish, French and Germans names

Often these names have particles like ‘von’, ‘van’, ‘van der’ and so on.

For example:  Anne Sofie von Otter, Karl Klaus von der Decken, Ludwig van Beethoven, Vincent van Gogh, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.

Names of French origin may use the particle ‘de’ or ‘du’.

For example:  Henri de Villiers, Anne du Bourg.

When referencing Dutch or Flemish names, the particle is always included in the in-text reference, and put last (before the date) in the reference list entry unless (as is often the case) the person is referred to intext by the particle, which is always capitalised.

For example:  Van Gogh, Van der Vaart.

When referencing German names the particle is dropped in the in-text reference, and put last in the reference list entry.

When referencing French names the particle is retained in both in-text and reference list entries.

  Full name In-text reference Reference list entry
Dutch Vincent van Gogh (van Gogh 1885)  Van Gogh (1885) Gogh V van 1885, …

or

Van Gogh V 1885, …

Flemish Henri Clemens van de Velde (van de Velde 1887) Velde HC van de 1887, …
French Henri Jacques de Villiers (de Villiers 2002) de Villiers HJ, 2002, …
German Ludwig van Beethoven (Beethoven 1813) Beethoven L van, 1813, …
German Karl Klaus von der Decken (Decken 1855) Decken, K. K. von der 1855, …

The guidelines are based on Teijlingen E van, 2004, ‘Referencing Flemish, Dutch and German authors in English’, Medical Sociology News, vol 30, no 1, pp 42-44.

Names with generational suffixes (Jr., Sr., II, III etc.)

Some American names use the generational suffixes ‘Jr.’ or ‘Sr.’ to indicate son and father respectively, and in some rare cases, mother and daughter. In British English ‘Jnr.’ and ‘Snr.’ are used instead.

Sometimes the Roman numeral ‘I’ is used instead of ‘Sr.’ and this may extend to further generations as ‘II’ and ‘III’.  When referencing such names, the suffix should only be included if the author uses it for his or her publications. For examples, see the table following.      

Names with the prefix ‘St.’

Some names have a prefix, such as ‘St.’ – the abbreviation for ‘saint’ and often pronounced as ‘sin’.

The following table lists some examples.

Full name In-text reference Reference list entry
Barack Hussein Obama II Obama (2012) Obama BH, 2012, …
William James Buckley Jr Buckley (1995) Buckley WJ Jr, 1995, …
Peter Samuel St. John St. John (2001) St John PS, 2001, …

Irish and Scots names

Many Irish names begin with O’, and this must be retained in referencing. Many Scots names begin with Mac and sometimes Mc, and this must be retained in referencing. The letter immediately following O’, Mac or Mc must be capitalised. The following table lists some examples.

Full name In-text reference Reference list entry
Phyllis McCaul McCaul (2012) McCaul P, 2012, …
William James MacDonald MacDonald (2011) MacDonald JW,  2011, …
Peter O’Toole O’Toole (2000) O’Toole P, 2000, …

Acronyms and initialisms

Acronyms are words formed from the initial letters (or groups of letters) of the words making up a company’s or organisation’s name. In speech an acronym replaces the full name. For example, we talk about ‘Qantas’ not ‘Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services’. When referencing a source authored by an acronym, the acronym must be used in both in-text references and the reference list entry.

In-text reference: (Qantas).

Reference list

Qantas, nd, Qantas investors, Qantas Airlines Limited, Mascot NSW, viewed 16 January 2012, <http://www.qantas.com.au/travel/airlines/investors/global/en>

Initialisms, unlike acronyms, are not spoken as words. Instead, all their letters are pronounced. For example, IBM (International Business Machines), ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) and OECD. Initialisms may not be unique. ABC is also an initialism for American Broadcasting Corporation. To use an initialism, you must show its full name followed by the initialism itself in parentheses in the first sentence where you use it. There are two ways you can do this:

Example 1: In 2007 the International Energy Agency (IEA) assessed all the world’s largest oil fields.

Production in 580 of these oil fields was declining on average by 5.1% per annum (IEA 2008, p 221). Example 2: A 2007 study by the International Energy Agency showed that production in 580 of the world’s largest oil fields declined on average by 5.1% per annum (IEA 2008, p 221).

Reference list

International Energy Agency (IEA) 2008, World energy outlook 2008, International Energy Agency, OECD Publishing, Paris.

 Note: You do not need to give the full names of commonly known initialisms like ‘CD’ or ‘DVD’.

Formatting your reference list

Your reference list must be in alphabetical order. It should also be easy to read. It is recommended that you choose a paragraph spacing of 9pt so that there is a gap between each reference list entry. This improves readability.

Important: Do not number or bullet point a reference list.

Note carefully how items with the same author and the same date (Finch), and items with the same author but with different dates (Rozenberg), are used in the following example:

Reference list

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2010, Labour force, Australia, Jan 2010, catalogue no 6202.0, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.

‘Cancer generation: baby boomers facing a perfect storm’ 2009, Oncology Nursing, vo. 36, n. 5, . 596.

Datastream International 2011, In Constituents of the S&P ASX200, Daily index data 2005-2010, viewed 13 November 2011, Datastream International/Equity Lists/LS&PCOMP

Dwyer J, 2008, The business communication handbook, 8th ed., Pearson Education Australia, Frenchs Forest.

Finch N,. 2002a, Workflow analysis: an introduction, Faber, Sydney.

Finch N, 2002b, ‘Enterprise content management and productivity’, Journal of Process Management, vol 14, no 3, pp 1023-1047.

International Energy Agency (IEA) 2008, World energy outlook 2008, International Energy Agency, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Jarsulic M, 2010, Anatomy of a financial crisis: a real estate bubble, runaway credit markets and regulatory failure, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, viewed 11 January 2011, Palgrave Connect Economics & Finance Collection 2010, doi: 10.1057/9780230106185.

Kindleberger C, 1999, ‘Fools and their money – what’s left of it’, Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), 19 August, p A. 16,viewed 28 September 2004, ProQuest Central, 398688342.

Needle D, 2010, Business in context, 5th ed, Cengage Learning, Hampshire.

Parched: the politics of water 2008, podcast, Australian Broadcasting Corporation Radio National, 21 November, viewed 28 September 2009,

<http://www.abc.net.au/rn/nationalinterest/stories/2008/2426405.htm>

Qantas, nd, Qantas investors, Qantas Airways Limited, Mascot NSW, viewed 16 January 2012,

<http://www.qantas.com.au/travel/airlines/investors/global/en>

Rozenberg  P, 2006, Transforming the twentieth century: technical innovations and their consequences, Oxford University Press, New York.

Rozenberg  P, 2009, Global catastrophes and trends: the next 50 years, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Rozenberg  P, 2019, Energy myths and realities: bringing science to the energy policy debate, American Enterprise Institute, Washington, D.C.

Sydney Morning Herald, ‘One dead in multiple beach rescue’ 2011, Sydney Morning Herald, 11 January, p 10.

Teijlingen E van, 2004, ‘Referencing Flemish, Dutch and German authors in English’, Medical Sociology News, vol 30, no 1, pp 42-44.

Wiklund J and Shepherd D, 2009, ‘The effectiveness of alliances and acquisitions: the role of resource combination activities’, Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, vol 33, no 1, pp 193-212, viewed 20 November 2012, Wiley Online Library, doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6520.2008.00286.x.

Examples – in-text and reference list entries

Formatting rules for titles in reference list entries

The following table shows how to interpret the formatting rules for titles in reference list entries.

Format rule How to apply the rule Example
Title of x e.g.

Title of article

Title of report

Capitalise the first letter of the title and the first letter of any proper name(s) in the title Business in context

 

Business management in

Australia

Title of X e.g.

Government

Department or Body

Database Name

Capitalise the first letter of each word in the title exactly as it is capitalised in the source Department of Foreign Affairs

 

Springer Link

Title of x e.g.

Title of website

Title of book

Title of lecture

Capitalise the first letter of the title and the first letter of any proper name(s) in the title, and apply italics Gwynne Dyer – author & historian 

Introduction to international business

Politics in Cambodia

Title of X e.g.

Title of Journal

Title of Newspaper

Title of Magazine

Capitalise the first letter of each word in the title exactly as it is capitalised in the source, and apply italics Journal of Marketing

 

New York Times

 

OECD Review

 

Note: initialisms are always capitalised, e.g. OECD, never Oecd; DVD not Dvd

Books, ebooks, translated books and book reviews

Type of source In-text reference Reference list entry
Book 

(print)

 

Finch (2007, p 20) proposes …

Author(s), Year, Title of book, Publisher, Place of Publication.

Example:

Finch N, 2007, Managing employee performance and reward, Cambridge University Press, Melbourne.

Book with no author 

(print)

Note: truncate long titles with an ellipsis (…)  as shown in this example:

 

In 1941 the Air Ministry published an account of its

bombing missions to date (Bomber Command …

1941).

Title of book Year, Publisher, Place of Publication.

 

Example:

Bomber Command: the Air Ministry account of Bomber Command’s offensive against the Axis Sept 1939-July 1941 1941, HMSO, London.

Book with no publication date

(print)

 The ancient scholar Aurelius (nd, p 20) claimed that . . . Author(s), nd, Title of book, Publisher, Place of Publication.

Example:

Aurelius M, nd, Meditations of Marcus Aurelius, Library of Classics, London.

Type of source In-text reference Reference list entry
Book with more than one edition

(print)

 

Some characterise the discipline of finance (Frino, Hill and Chen 2009, p 2) as

Author(s), Year, Title of book, number of edition, Publisher, Place of Publication.

Example:

Frino A, Hill A and Chen Z, 2009, Introduction to corporate finance, 4th ed, Pearson Education Australia, Sydney.

Edited book 

(print)

  The foundations of industrial justice are examined by

Patmore (2003) through …

… deny the fact (Jones and Hensher 2008).

Editor(s) (ed./eds.)* Year, Title of book, Publisher, Place of Publication.

*use ed. for one editor; eds. for multiple editors Examples:

Patmore G, (ed.) 2003, Laying the foundations of industrial justice: the presidents of the Industrial Relations Commission of NSW 1902-1998, The Federation Press, Sydney.

 

Jones S and Hensher D (eds.), 2008, Advances in credit risk modelling and bankruptcy prediction, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Chapter in an edited book

(print)

 One perspective on women and work is offered by Baird (2010) in her discussion of … Author(s), Year, ‘Title of chapter’ in Editor(s) (ed./eds.)*, Title of book, Publisher, Place of Publication, page numbers.

*use ed. for one editor; eds. for multiple editors

Example:

Baird M, 2010, ‘Women and work in Australia: a theoretical and historical overview’ in Murray PA, Kramar R and McGraw P

(eds), Women at work: research, policy and practice, Tilde University Press, Melbourne, pp 1-23.

 

Translated book

(print)

 Dreams and nightmares frequently function as allegories in …

(Krzhizhanovsky 2006).

Author(s), Year, Title of book, translated from Language by Translator(s), Publisher, Place of Publication.

Example:

Krzhizhanovsky S, 2006, Memories of the future, translated from Russian by Turnbull J, New York Review Books Classics, New York.

Electronic book

(eBook)

(database)

 Jarsulic (2010, pp 25-28) suggests that … Author(s) Year, Title of book, (edition number if available), Publisher, Place, viewed Day Month Year, Database Name, doi: or item number or ISBN (if available).

Example with DOI:

Jarsulic M, 2010, Anatomy of a financial crisis: a real estate bubble, runaway credit markets and regulatory failure, Palgrave

Macmillan, New York, viewed 11 January 2011, Palgrave Connect Economics & Finance Collection 2010,  doi: 10.1057/9780230106185.

Electronic book

(eBook)

(online)

 Locke (1821, pp 301-303) argued that … Author(s), Year, Title of book, (edition number if available), Publisher, Place, viewed Day Month Year, <URL> Example:

Locke J, 1821, Two treatises of government, Whitmore and

Fenn, and Brown, London, viewed 9 July 2012,

<http://books.google.com.au/books?id=K5UIAAAAQAAJ>

Type of source In-text reference Reference list entry
Chapter in an edited electronic book (eBook) (database) Kepes and Delery (2007) have outlined … Author(s), Year, ‘Title of chapter’ in Editor(s) (ed./eds)*, Title of book, (edition number if available), Publisher, Place, viewed Day Month Year, Database Name, doi: or item number or ISBN

(if available).

*use ed for one editor; eds for multiple editors

Example with ISBN:

Kepes S and Delery,J, 2007, ‘HRM systems and the problem of the internal fit’ in Boxall P, Purcell J and Wright P (eds.),

The Oxford handbook of human resource management, Oxford University Press, Oxford, viewed 24 February 2008, Informit Business Collection, ISBN 019928251X.

Book review

(print)

Henry Ford wanted to ‘remake the world by integrating factory life and farming in a modern Arcadia’ (Scott 2009, p 32). Review Author(s), Year, ‘Title of review’ review of Title of book reviewed by Author(s), Journal Title, volume number, issue number, page numbers.

Example:

Scott JC, 2009, ‘Duas cervejas’ review of Fordlandia: the rise and fall of Henry Ford’s forgotten jungle city by Grandin G, London Review of Books, vol 31, no 19, pp 31-33.

Book review

(online)

 Henry Ford wanted to ‘remake the world by integrating factory life and farming in a modern Arcadia’ (Scott 2009). Review Author(s), Year, ‘Title of review’ review of Title of book reviewed by Author(s), Journal Title, volume number (if

available), issue number (if available), viewed Day Month Year,

<URL>

Example: 

Scott JC, 2009, ‘Duas cervejas’ review of Fordlandia: the rise and fall of Henry Ford’s forgotten jungle city by Grandin G,

London Review of Books, vol 31, no 19, viewed 20 January 2012, <http://www.lrb.co.uk/v31/n19/james-c-scott/duascervejas>

Company information, media (press) releases, standards, patents, brochures

Type of source In-text reference Reference list entry
Annual company

report (print)

 

Note: for the annual reports published by a company, including financial reports

 

 

… profits fell significantly (Monax 2009, p 52).

Company Name, Year, Title of report, Place of Publication.

Example:

Monax Mining Limited, 2009, Annual financial report, Unley SA.

 

Note: Place of publication is usually the location of the company’s head office.

Annual company

report (online)

 

Note: for the annual reports published by a company, including financial reports

  … profits fell significantly (Monax 2009, p 52). Company Name, Year, Title of report, Place of Publication, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

Example:

Monax Mining Limited, 2009, Annual financial report, Unley SA, viewed 13 June 2012,

<http://www.monaxmining.com.au/site/investors/corporatereports/annual-reports/doc_view/217-2009-annual-financialreport.html>

Brochure or pamphlet  Further events are described in Austudy (2010) Title of brochure, Year, Publisher, Place of Publication.

Example:

Austudy, 2010, Centrelink, Canberra, ACT.

Company profile (commercial database)  (Datamonitor 2010) Database Name, Year, Company Name company profile, viewed Day Month Year, Database Provider.

Example:

Datamonitor, 2007, Monax Mining Limited company profile, viewed 7 October 2011, Business Source Premier (EBSCO).

Company report (commercial database)

 

Note: this a report on a company, not an annual financial report

(Morningstar 2011)

 

(Aspect Huntley 2008)

Database Name, Year, Report title, viewed Day Month Year, Database Provider.

Example:

Morningstar, 2010, Macquarie Generation company report, viewed 18 July 2011, Morningstar DatAnalysis.

Aspect Huntley, 2008, MHM Metals company report, viewed 18 June 2010, Aspect Huntley Annual Reports Online.

Financial data from Thomson Reuters

Datastream

 (Datastream International

2011)

Datastream International, Year, Search Code Name, Data description, viewed Day Month Year, Datastream

International/Database Segment searched/SEARCH CODE.

Example:

Datastream International, 2011, In Constituents of the S&P

ASX200, Daily index data 2005-2010, viewed 13 November 2011, Datastream International/Equity Lists/LS&PCOMP

Passport GMID

(Global Market

Information

Database)

Note: ‘GMID’ has been renamed ‘Passport GMID.’

 

…. (Passport GMID 2012).

Passport GMID, Year of Data, Data report title, Data Report Type, Data Report Date or Date Range, viewed Day Month Year, Euromonitor International Passport GMID.

Examples:

Passport GMID, 2005, Fast food in the USA, Major Market Profiles Report,  September 2005, viewed 6 January 2012, Euromonitor International Passport GMID.

Note: If the data does not apply to a specific year then use nd

for the date:

Passport GMID, nd, Fast food in the USA, Major Market Profiles Report,  viewed 6 January 2012, Euromonitor International Passport GMID.

Media (press) release  … to be ‘based on the most rigorous scientific evidence available’ (Office of the Prime Minister 2011). Author(s) or Organisation, Year, Title of release, media release, release Day Month, viewed Day Month Year, <URL> Example:

Office of the Prime Minister, 2011, New focus on scientific evidence to build confidence in coal seam gas and coal mining, media release, 21 November, viewed 17 January 2012, <http://www.pm.gov.au/press-office/new-focus-scientificevidence-build-confidence-coal-seam-gas-and-coal-mining>

Patent  A patent was taken out  (Pettigrew 2007) following… Author(s) Year, Title of patent, Country Patent No

Example:

Pettigrew J, 2007, New system of teaching accounting, Australia Patent 2007101217.

Type of source In-text reference Reference list entry
Standard

(database)

 (Standards Australia/New

Zealand 2004)

Standards Country, Year, Standard title, Standard Code Number, viewed Day Month Year, Database Name.

Example:

Standards Australia/New Zealand, 2004, Information technology

– process assessment – guidance on performing an assessment, AS/NZS ISO/IEC 15504.3:2004, viewed 4 April 2011, Standards Australia Online.

Standard 

(print)

 (Standards Australia 1987) Standards Country, Year, Standard title, Standard Code Number, Standards Organisation, Place of Publication.

Example:

Standards Australia, 1987, Data processing – vocabulary – computer graphics, AS1189.13-1987, Standards Australia, NSW.

Internet: web pages, web sites, blogs, social media

Web page titles: most browsers show web site and web page titles in a title bar at the top of the window. It is acceptable to truncate the title in the in-text reference.

Note: this section applies only to web pages, not to downloaded documents (usually in PDF format) such as reports, journal articles, conference papers and so on. Refer to the relevant section to reference these items.

Type of source In-text reference Reference list entry
Web page with author(s)

 

Note: for online magazines and, newspapers see sections 3.8 and

3.10.

Cagliarini and McKibbin (2009) discuss … Author(s), Year, Title of web page, Name of Organisation, Place of Organisation (if available), viewed Day Month Year, <URL> Example:

Cagliarini A and McKibbin W, 2009, Global relative price shocks: the role of macroeconomic policies, Reserve Bank of

Australia, Sydney, viewed 24 October 2010,

<http://www.rba.gov.au/publications/rdp/2009/2009-10.html>

Web page, no author

 

Note: for online magazines and, newspapers see sections 3.8 and

3.10.

The level of fiscal stimulus is summarised in the Department of Treasury annual report 2009-2010 (2010)…

 

… fell by 12 percent

(Department of Treasury annual report 2009-2010 2010).

Title of web page, Year, Name of Organisation, Place of Organisation (if available), viewed Day Month Year, <URL> Example:

Department of Treasury annual report, 2009-2010 2010, Department of Treasury, Canberra, viewed 28 October 2010, <http://www.treasury.gov.au/contentitem.asp?NavId=036&Cont entID=1893>

Web page, no publication date  The bombing of Germany’s synthetic fuel plants crippled its military capability

(Department of Energy nd).

Author(s), n.d., Title of web page, Name of Organisation, Place of Organisation (if available), viewed Day Month Year, <URL> Example:

Department of Energy, nd, The early days of coal research, US

Department of Energy, Washington, D.C., viewed 10 January

2012, <http://energy.gov/fe/early-days-coal-research>

Type of source In-text reference Reference list entry
Web site

 

Note: reference a web site only when discussing it or when using  multiple web pages from it 

 … inflationary pressures

(Reserve Bank of Australia 2007).

Publisher or Company Name, Year (of last update if available),

Title of web site, Place of Organisation (if available), viewed Day Month Year, <URL> Example:

Reserve Bank of Australia, 2007, Reserve Bank of Australia,

Sydney, viewed 23 March 2007, <www.rba.gov.au>

Web blog

 

Note: reference a web blog only if discussing the blog itself

In his blog, Quiggin (2011) criticises… Author(s), Year, Title of web blog, web blog, viewed Day Month Year, <URL> Example:

Quiggin J, 2011, John Quiggin: commentary on Australian & world events from a social-democratic perspective, web blog, viewed 14 January 2012, <http://johnquiggin.com>

Web blog post Note: if the screen name has given and family names, use the usual form for author names, otherwise use the screen name of the poster (e.g. @pplefan38)

 

The size of the current oil spot market is very uncertain (Kaminska 2011).

 

… and the Samsung Galaxy S5 has better camera features (@pplefan38 2014).

Author(s) or Screen Name, Year of Posting, ‘Title of web blog post’, Title of web blog, web blog post, Day Month, viewed Day

Month Year, <URL>

Example:

Kaminska I, 2013, ‘The decline of the oil spot market?’,

FTAlphaville, web blog post, 24 April, viewed 2 November 2014, <http://ftalphaville.ft.com/2013/04/24/1469422/thedecline-of-the-oil-spot-market>

 

@pplefan38, 2014, ‘iPhone 6 vs Galaxy S5 comparison’,

AppleFanSite, web blog post, 11 September, viewed 20 November 2014, <http://applefansite.com/2014/09/iphone6-vssamsung-galaxy-s5-comparison>

Social media

(Facebook, My

Space, renren,

Sina Weibo)

Caution: Social media is not considered to be a reliable source of information.

 

Save the Children UK (2012) reports that 1.2 million East African children ..

Author or Screen Name, Year of Posting, ‘Title of post’, Title of

Service, posted Day Month, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

Example:

Save the Children UK, 2012, ‘Morning! How is everyone today? Feel like helping end the kind extreme hunger [sic]?’, Facebook, posted 12 January, viewed 17 January 2012, <http://engb.facebook.com/savethechildrenuk>

Journal articles

Type of source In-text reference Reference list entry
Journal article

(print)

 According to Carlin  (2007) …

… very difficult (Carlin 2007).

Author(s), Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, page numbers.

Example:

Carlin T, 2007, ‘Some reflections on research’, Compliance and Regulatory Journal, vol 2, no 1, pp 9-13.

Journal article, no author (print) The problems facing baby boomers have been carefully investigated (‘Cancer generation …’ 2009). ‘Title of article’ ,Year, Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, page numbers.

Example:

‘Cancer generation: baby boomers facing a perfect storm’, 2009, Oncology Nursing, vol 36, no 5, p 596.

 

Note: This is the only situation where you must use the title of the article when there is no author. You can truncate long titles using an ellipsis (…) as shown in the example:

 

Type of source In-text reference Reference list entry
Journal article

(online)

Note: this is for journal articles found on a web site that is not a database like

JSTOR, ProQuest, EBSCOhost and so on.

 

Oil price regimes, of which there have been many, exist only as long as they are useful to participants in the market, even if they are not rational (Mabro 2005).

Author(s), Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, page numbers, viewed Day Month Year, Web

Site Name, <URL> Example:

Mabro R, 2005, ‘The international oil price regime: origins, rationale and assessment’, Journal of Energy Literature, vol 11, no 1, pp 3-20, viewed 13 July 2013, Graduate Institute

Geneva,

<http://graduateinstitute.ch/files/live/sites/iheid/files/sites/mia/us ers/Rachelle_Cloutier/public/International%20Energy/Mabro%2 0International%20oil%20price%20regime.pdf>

 

Note: if the article has a DOI, use that in the reference list entry instead:

Author(s), Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, page numbers, viewed Day Month Year, Web Site Name, doi:.

Journal article 

(database)

Note: if the DOI is given in a URL with a usyd domain, e.g. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy2.libr ary.usyd.edu.au/10.1016/03 0-5073(76)907-6, then you must extract the DOI which is everything including and after ’10.’. In this case the DOI is:

10.1016/030-5073(76)907-6.

 

The reason for this is that anyone must be able to access your source, not just a person with a University of Sydney account.

 

The question of what will happen to banks is introduced by Bossone (2001) …

 

Author(s), Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, volume number, issue number, page numbers, viewed Day Month Year, Database Name, doi: or item number (if available).

 

Note: the most preferred identifier is the DOI (digital object identifier) in either the number or URL format. The next preferred identifier is the stable URL. A stable URL is one that will never change. The database will clearly identify a stable URL if one is available.

 

Example with DOI:

 

Bossone B, 2001, ‘Do banks have a future? A study on banking and finance as we move into the third millennium’,

Journal of Banking & Finance, vol 25, no 12, pp 2239-2276, viewed 16 January 2005, ScienceDirect, doi: 10.1016/S03784266(01)00196-0.

 

Example with stable URL or DOI in URL format:

Elliott D, 2006, ‘Energy regime choices: nuclear or not?’,

Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, vol 18, no 5, pp 445-450, viewed 13 June 2013, Taylor & Francis Online, <http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537320601019545>

 

Example with item number:

Bossone B, 2001, ‘Do banks have a future? A study on banking and finance as we move into the third millennium’,

Journal of Banking & Finance, vol 25, no 12, pp 2239-2276, viewed 16 January 2005, ScienceDirect, 97753458.

 

Note: the item number may be called the accession number or document number or document id.

 

Law: cases, acts, regulations, bills

Note that ‘Cth’ is an abbreviation for ‘Commonwealth’, which is the term used to identify Australian Federal Government legislation. For state or territory legislation use Vic, NSW, NT, Qld, Tas, WA etc.

Note that ‘pinpoint’ can be the starting page, page number, paragraph number, clause, footnote or section number.

Type of source In-text reference Reference list entry
Cases  According to (R v Song

(2005) 125 CLR 1) a business may …

Case Name (Year) Volume Law Report Series start page, pinpoint (if any).

Examples:

R v Song (2005) 125 CLR 1.

Funwick v Creasel (1932) 47 CLR 2, 3.3.

QPB Enterprises Pty Ltd v Commonwealth (1995) 117 CLR 13.

Acts of

Parliament

(statutes)

 … is allowed in such

circumstances (Corporations

Act 2001 (Cth) s 3)

Title of Act Year (Jurisdiction).

Example:

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth).

Social Welfare Ordnance 1964 (NT).

Delegated legislation (regulations)  … in accordance with the law (Police Regulations 2003 (Vic) reg 9.2). Title of Legislation Year (Jurisdiction) pinpoint.

Note: Pinpoint may be an order (O), regulation (reg), rule (r), sub-regulation (sub-reg) or sub-rule sub-r, and if plural: OO, regs,rr, sub-regs, sub-rr.

Example:

Police Regulations 2003 (Vic) reg 9.2.

Migration Regulations 1996 (Cth) regs 12-14.

Bills  … a clear requirement

(Corporations Amendment

Bill (No 1) 2005 (Cth) cl 13).

Title of Bill (No X) Year (Jurisdiction).

Example:

Corporations Amendment Bill (No 1) 2005 (Cth).

Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme Bill 2009 (Cth).

Lectures, tutorials, readings, speeches, interviews, personal communications

Note: Material sourced from Blackboard is referenced with the domain only: http://blackboard.econ.usyd.edu.au. This is because the Blackboard URL you will see is usually unique to your account or session.

Type of source In-text reference Reference list entry
Lecture materials  from Blackboard (slides, recording of lecture)  According to Piggott (2011) business refers to … Author(s), Year, Title of lecture (Unit Code), Teaching

Organisation, Place of Publication, Lecture Date, viewed Day

Month Year, <http://blackboard.econ.usyd.edu.au> Example:

Piggott L, 2011, Introduction to business (BUSS1002), The

University of Sydney, Sydney, 10 March, viewed 14 March

2011, <http://blackboard.econ.usyd.edu.au>

Unit of study readings from Blackboard   Fisher (2004) demonstrates the important role that self reflection plays in the development of critical thinking. Author(s), Year, ‘Title of reading’ in Editor(s) (ed/eds)*, Title of course (Unit Code), Teaching Organisation, Place of

Publication, viewed Day Month Year,

<http://blackboard.econ.usyd.edu.au>

*use ed for one editor; eds for multiple editors

Example:

Fisher K, 2004, ‘Critical self-reflection: what is it and how do you do it?’ in Piggott L, (ed.), Introduction to business

(BUSS1001), The University of Sydney, Sydney, viewed 14

January 2011, <http://blackboard.econ.usyd.edu.au>

Type of source In-text reference Reference list entry
Material from unit of study reader

(print)

 

Critical self-reflection is defined as ‘. . .’ (Fisher 2004, p 2).

Author(s), Year, ‘Title of document’ in Editor(s) (ed/eds)*, Title of course reader, Teaching Organisation, Place of Publication.

*use ed for one editor; eds for multiple editors

Note: Only reference course readings by this method if they cannot be found elsewhere. You should always reference the original source (book, journal article) where possible.

Example:

Fisher K, 2004, ‘Critical self-reflection: what is it and how do you do it?’ in Piggott L (ed.), Introduction to business reader, The University of Sydney, Sydney.

Lecture or tutorial notes (your notes from lecture/tutorial or words spoken by lecturer/tutor)  Piggott (2011) defined … Author(s), Year, Lecture/Tutorial title (Unit Code), at Teaching Organisation, Place of Publication, Day Month.

Example:

Piggott L, 2011, Introduction to business (BUSS1002), at The University of Sydney, Sydney, 10 March.

Speech

(at a conference)

 Rudd (2011) argued that the G20 was the only organisation capable of … Speaker ,Year, Title of speech, Title of Conference, at Place of Speech, Day Month.

Example:

Rudd K, 2011, University of Queensland annual lecture in politics and international affairs, ISA Asia-Pacific Regional

Section Inaugural Conference, at Brisbane, 30 September.

Speech 

(other than a unit of study lecture, such as a public lecture, address, or statement)

 According to Bell (2011), the Chinese government has utilised three sources … Speaker’ Year, Title of lecture or speech, Name of Organisation (if any), at Place of Speech, Day Month.

Example:

Bell D,  2011, Political legitimacy in China: a Confucian perspective, Sydney Ideas, at The University of Sydney, 5 October.

Reported speech

(reported speech or words spoken in any source)

If you are quoting words spoken by a person, or reported to have been spoken by them, from any source (e.g. newspaper article, television program), then you reference that source, not the person.

Give the person’s official title in your text the first time you mention them. The following example is for an online news source where the author is Australian Associated Press (AAP):

In-text:

Energy Minister Martin Ferguson stated that Australia had investments of ‘around $170 billion in LNG alone and about $270 billion across resources in energy’ (AAP 2012). Ferguson thought nuclear energy, although a clean form of power generation was too costly to be developed in Australia.

Reference list entry:

AAP 2012, ‘Energy Minister Martin Ferguson wants to reform the energy market with the

Coalition-run states approval’, News.com.au, 8 November, viewed 13 June 2014,

<http://www.news.com.au/national/energy-minister-martin-ferguson-wants-to-reform-the-energymarket-with-the-coalition-run-states-approval/story-fndo4eg9-1226513116910> Note: use the reference list entry relevant to the source.

Interview

(for interviews you have conducted)

Note: If you provide a transcription of the interview in an appendix, insert a footnote to refer the reader to that appendix.

 

In an interview, the former Microsoft CEO said ‘…’ (Gates 2012).

Interviewee(s), Year, author interview, Day Month, Location (if available).

Example:

Gates B, 2012, author interview, 3 July, Seattle.

Note:

The interviewee is the person interviewed, not the person conducting the interview.

Type of source In-text reference Reference list entry
Personal communication (verbal, written – hard copy or email) Source (Year, pers. comm.

Day Month)

 

F. J. Hodgson (2004, pers.

comm. 27 October) confirmed …

No entry is required in the reference list.

 

 

Magazines

Type of source In-text reference Reference list entry
Magazine article with author

(print)

Hudson (2006) observed the tax burden had steadily shifted from property to labour … Author(s), Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Magazine, Day (and/or)

Month (if available), volume number (if available), issue number (if available), page number(s).

Example:

Hudson M, 2006, ‘The new road to serfdom: an illustrated guide to the coming real estate collapse’, Harper’s, May, vol

312, no 1872, pp 39-46.

Magazine article,  no author 

(print)

  … influence (Getting

Together: Social Justice Monitor 2001).

Title of Magazine, Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Magazine,

Month, volume number (if available), issue number (if available), page number(s).

Example:

Getting Together: Social Justice Monitor, 2001, ‘Danger of academics growing dependence on private sector’, Getting Together: Social Justice Monitor, April, p 13.

Magazine article with author

(online)

 

Gettler (2011) notes that business are being forced to adapt to increasing usage of Smartphone and tablet technology.

Author(s), Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Magazine, Day (and/or)

Month (if available), volume number (if available), issue number

(if available), page number(s) (if available), viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

Example:

Gettler L, 2011, ‘Mobile commerce on fast track’, Management

Today, October, viewed 7 November 2013,

<http://www.aim.com.au/DisplayStory.asp?ID=808>

Magazine article, no author (online)  … commentators have predicted (Oil & Gas Journal 2012). Title of Magazine, Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Magazine, Day

(and/or) Month (if available), volume number (if available), issue number (if available), page number(s) (if available), viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

Example:

Oil & Gas Journal, 2012, ‘Rice study questions volume of future

US natural gas exports’, Oil & Gas Journal, 15 August, viewed

17 August 2013, <http://www.ogj.com/articles/2012/08/ricestudy-questions-volume-of-future-us-natural-gas-exports.html>

Magazine article with author (database)    … ‘the first privately owned company based in China to list on the New York Stock Exchange’ (Knight 2011, p

28).

Author(s) Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Magazine, Day (and/or)

Month (if available), volume number (if available), issue number (if available), page number(s) (if available), viewed Day Month Year, Database Name, doi: or item number (if available).

Note: the most preferred identifier is the DOI (digital object identifier) in either the number or URL format. The next preferred identifier is the stable URL. A stable URL is one that will never change. The database will clearly identify a stable URL if one is available. The item number may be called the accession number or document number or document id.

Example  with item number:

Knight E, 2011, ‘The sun king: Shi Zhengrong’, The Monthly,

June, viewed 9 December 2011, Informit Humanities & Social Sciences Collection, 201107386.

Type of source In-text reference Reference list entry
Magazine article with no author (database)  

 

… ‘the first naturally ventilated fire facility in the country’ (Fire Chief 2005, p

102).

Title of Magazine, Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Magazine, Day

(and/or) Month (if available), volume number (if available), issue number (if available), page number(s) (if available), viewed Day Month Year, Database Name, doi: or item number

(if available).

Note: the most preferred identifier is the DOI (digital object identifier) in either the number or URL format. The next preferred identifier is the stable URL. A stable URL is one that will never change. The database will clearly identify a stable URL if one is available. The item number may be called the accession number or document number or document id.

Example with item number:

Fire Chief, 2005, ‘Combined use’, Fire Chief, vol 49, no 11, pp

100-110, viewed 17 August 2012, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost, 18993353.

Multimedia

Type of source In-text reference Reference list entry
Motion picture (for a movie that you watched in a cinema) In the 1930s it was Australian Government policy to take half-caste children from their Aboriginal mothers (Rabbit-proof fence 2002). Title of film, Year of release, motion picture, Country of origin:

Film studio or maker, director Name.

Example:

Rabbit-proof fence, 2002, motion picture, Australia: Miramax Home Entertainment, director P Noyce.

Podcast 

(audio file online)

 Parched: the politics of water

(2008) identifies …

Title of podcast, Year, podcast, Name of Organisation, Day

Month of Publication (if available), viewed Day Month Year,

<URL>

Example:

Parched: the politics of water, 2008, podcast, Australian Broadcasting Corporation Radio National, 21 November, viewed 28 September 2009,

<http://www.abc.net.au/rn/nationalinterest/stories/2008/242640

5.htm>

Note: Give either the URL for the page from which the podcast can be downloaded or the download URL (usually in .mp3)

Radio program (for a broadcast you listened to) Note: it is preferable to obtain the transcript of the program especially if you wish to use a quotation

 

… and the two leaders’ seemingly close friendship (‘Bush’s brain and Howard’s election’ 2003).

‘Title of episode’, Year of broadcast, Title of series (where applicable), radio program, Day Month Time of transmission, Broadcasting Organisation and Station, presenter/journalist Name.

Example:

‘Bush’s brain and Howard’s election’, 2003, Background briefing, radio program, 12 October 2pm, Australian Broadcasting Corporation Radio National, presenter S. Correy.

Television program (for a broadcast you watched) Note: it is preferable to obtain the transcript of the program especially if you wish to use a quotation

 

Mark Twain, Buster Keaton, and Henry Ford were all bankrupt at some stage in their careers (‘Dreams of avarice’ 2009).

‘Title of episode’, Year of broadcast, Title of series (where applicable), television program, Day Month Time of transmission, Broadcasting Organisation and Channel, presenter/journalist Name.

Example:

‘Dreams of avarice’, 2009, The ascent of money, television program, 28 May 8:30pm, Australian Broadcasting Corporation ABC1, presenter N. Ferguson.

Type of source In-text reference Reference list entry
Video 

(watched on

DVD,VHS etc)

 Inside job (2010) illustrates how unethical behaviour was a contributing cause of the

2008 global financial crisis.

Title of video, Year of release, video recording, Country of origin: Film studio or maker, director Name.

Example:

Inside job, 2010, video recording, United States: Sony Pictures Classics and Representational Pictures, director C. Ferguson.

Video blog post (online blog with video postings) Risk analyst Satyajit Das notes the role of debt in accelerating growth

(PressTVGlobalNews 2011).

Screen name of contributor, Year, Title of video, Series Title (if applicable), video online, viewed Day Month Year, <URL> Example:

PressTVGlobalNews, 2011,Global economic chaos-on the edge with Max Keiser-11-04-2011, video online, viewed 9 December

2011, <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6iXhAPTGyfQ>

Vodcast 

(online video file)

Paul Ormerod highlights the role networks play in our thinking (Networks: how they change our thinking 2011) … Title of vodcast, Year, video file, Name of Organisation, Day

Month of Publication (if available), viewed Day Month Year,

<URL>

Example:

Networks: how they change our thinking, 2011, video file,

SlowTV, October, viewed 26 November 2011,

<http://bliptv/file/get/Slowtv-

NetworksHowTheyChangeOurThinkingPaulOrmerod295.m4v>

Note: Give the URL for the page from which the vodcast can either be viewed or downloaded.

Newspapers, online news sources and wire feeds

Online news sources such as Reuters or Bloomberg or the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) should be referenced as online newspapers. Wire feeds (which get their name from the age of the telegraph) are also referenced as online newspapers.

Note: Omit ‘a’, ‘an’ or ‘the’ from the start of a newspaper title: Wall Street Journal, not The Wall Street Journal.

Note: Newspaper section numbers or letters are treated as part of the page number.

Note: Newspaper editions are placed in parentheses immediately following the title, but in normal (non-italic) text parentheses, e.g. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition).

Type of source In-text reference Reference list entry
Article from news source or wire feed with author

(online)

 ‘ … rebound from a projected sixth loss in seven years’ (Lui and Huang 2014). Author(s), Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of News Source, Day

Month, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

Example:

Lui M and Huang G,  2014, ‘Sony forms alliance for China

PlayStation in Microsoft challenge’, Bloomberg, 26 May, viewed

28 May 2014, <http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-0525/sony-forms-ventures-to-make-sell-playstation-consoles-inchina.html>

Article from news source or wire feed with no author (online) Note: When Associated

Press, Australian Associated

Press and Agence France Presse are used as corporate authors you only need to use their initialism (AP, APP, AFP).

 

‘ … in every month since February 2012’ (AAP 2013).

 

… according to exit polls (AFP 2014).

News Source Name (initials), Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of

News Source, Day Month, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

Example: article from wire feed in online newspaper

AAP, 2013, ‘Manufacturing shrinks again, but slower’, Sydney

Morning Herald, 1 March, viewed 22 September 2013,

<http://www.smh.com.au/business/theeconomy/manufacturing-shrinks-again-but-slower-20130301-

2f9zt.html>

Example: article on news source web site

AFP, 2014, ‘Putin watches hockey as tycoon declares Ukraine vote win’, Agence France Presse, 25 May, viewed 27 May

2014,

<http://www.afpcom/en/news/putin-watches-hockey-tycoondeclares-ukraine-vote-win>

Type of source In-text reference Reference list entry
Newspaper

article with author 

(print)

 

Newspaper

article with edition and section

 Different methods of retaining nurses have been challenged by Brown (1987, p A.1) … Author(s), Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, Day Month, page number(s).

Example:

Brown D, 1987, ‘Hospitals try tea, raises, status to refill thinning ranks of nurses’, Los Angeles Times, 6 August, p 1.

Examples with edition and section:

Heslop D, 1957, ‘New farm technology on display at Wistlow

Park’, Houndsborough Gazette (Late Edition), 4 May, p A.1. Weiner, T. 2004, ‘James Chace, foreign policy thinker, is dead at 72’, New York Times (Late East Coast Edition), 11 October,  p B.7.

Newspaper

article, no author

(print)

 … infrequent (Sydney

Morning Herald 2011, p 10).

Title of Newspaper, Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, Day Month, page number(s).

Example:

Sydney Morning Herald, 2011, ‘One dead in multiple beach rescue’, Sydney Morning Herald, 11 January, p 10.

Newspaper

article with author (online)

 Martin (2011) asserts that … Author(s), Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, Day Month, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

Example:

Martin P, 2011, ‘Fraud is a cinch – just ask your bank’, Sydney

Morning Herald, 11 January, viewed 13 January 2011, <http://www.smh.com.au/business/fraud-is-a-cinch–just-askyour-bank-20110110-19l77.html>

Newspaper

article, no author

(online)

 

… infrequent (Sydney

Morning Herald 2011)

 

Title of Newspaper, Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper,

Day Month, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

Example:

Sydney Morning Herald, 2011, ‘One dead in multiple beach rescue’, Sydney Morning Herald, 11 January, viewed 16 August 2012, <http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/one-dead-in-multiplebeach-rescue-20110121-19zp5.html>

Newspaper

article with author (database)

 

 

The problems faced by Wall Street in the past have been denied by Kindleberger (1999, p A.16) who maintains that …

Author(s), Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper, Day Month, page number(s) (if available), viewed Day Month Year, Database Name, doi: or item number (if available).

Note: the most preferred identifier is the DOI (digital object identifier) in either the number or URL format. The next preferred identifier is the stable URL. A stable URL is one that will never change. The database will clearly identify a stable URL if one is available. The item number may be called the accession number or document number or document id.

Example with item number:

Kindleberger C, 1999, ‘Fools and their money – what’s left of it’, Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), 19 August, p A.16, viewed 28 September 2004, ProQuest Central, 398688342.

Newspaper

article, no author

(database)

According to Government witnesses, Standard Oil salesman tampered with oil lamps (New York Times 1908, p 8). Title of Newspaper, Year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Newspaper,

Day Month, page number(s) (if available), viewed Day Month Year, Database Name, doi: or item number (if available).

Example:

New York Times, 1908, ‘Standard Oil Co. denies trickery’, New

York Times, 10 September, p 8, viewed 14 July 2012, ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times (18512008), 96807821.

Note: the item number may be called the accession number or document id.

Reports, documents, statistics, government documents, graphs, tables and images

Type of source In-text reference Reference list entry
Report or document

(printed)

 The Allen Consulting Group

(2006) presented a convincing argument that skills matter to employers.

Author(s) or Organisation, Year, Title of report, Report number (if available), Publisher or Institution, Place of Publication, ISBN (if available).

Example:

Allen Consulting Group, 2006, World class skills for world class industries: employers’ perspectives on skilling in Australia, Allen Consulting Group, Sydney.

Report or document

(online,  usually  pdf)

Fatih Birol, Chief Economist for the International Energy Agency, stated that ‘current high oil prices have the potential to strangle the economic recovery in many countries’ (Johnson et al.

2012, p 2).

Author(s) or Organisation, Year, Title of report, Report number (if available), Publisher or Institution, Place of Publication (if available), ISBN (if available), viewed Day Month Year, <URL> Example:

Johnson V, Simms A, Skrebowski C and Greenham T, 2012, The economics of oil dependence: a glass ceiling to recovery, New Economics Foundation, London, ISBN 978-1-

908506-27-6, viewed 27 November 2012,

<http://www.neweconomics.org/publications/the-economics-ofoil-dependence-a-glass-ceiling-to-recovery>

Statistics 

(print)

 

Note: use for statistics from official sources

e.g. government,

OECD

Unemployment increased substantially following the financial crisis (Australian

Bureau of Statistics 2010).

Organisation, Year, Title of document, catalogue no (if available), Publisher (Department), Place of Publication (if available).

Example:

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2010, Labour force, Australia, Jan 2010, catalogue no 6202.0, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.

Statistics 

(online, web page, pdf, excel,  zip etc.)

 

Note: use for statistics from official sources

e.g. government,

OECD

 

Note: see 2.22 for how to use initialisms

 … had increased by only 2.1 percent (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2013).

 

… rapid increase (OECD 2013).

Organisation, Year Accessed, Title of statistics including year(s) if relevant (dataset name if applicable), catalogue no (if available), Publisher, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>

Note: the URL is to the web page where the data or the data download link was found. Give the full title of the data.

Example:

Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2013, Labour mobility, Australia, February 2013 (persons who were working at February 2013, changes in employer/business or work – by selected

employment characteristics), catalogue no 6209.0, Australian

Bureau of Statistics, viewed 3 October 2013,

<http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/DetailsPage/620

9.0February%202013?OpenDocument>   Example:

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

(OECD), 2013, Population (Australia 1990 – 2010), viewed 6

October 2013, OECD.Stat, <http://stats.oecd.org>

Government document 

(print)

The Human Rights and

Equal Opportunity

Commission (1997) noted that …

Government (Department or Body), Year, Title of document, Government Department, Place of Publication (if available), catalogue no (if available).

Example:

Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, 1997, Bringing them home: report of the national inquiry into the separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their families, Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, Sydney.

Government document

(online, usually pdf)

 … $1.8 billion could be gained annually (Uranium Mining, Processing and

Nuclear Energy Review Taskforce 2006, p 2).

Government Department or Body, Year, Title of document, Government Department, Place of Publication (if available), catalogue no (if available), viewed Day Month Year, <URL> Example:

Uranium Mining, Processing and Nuclear Energy Review Taskforce, 2006, Uranium mining, processing and nuclear energy – opportunities for Australia?, Department of Prime

Minister and Cabinet, Barton, viewed 11 December 2011, <http://www.ansto.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/38975/U mpner_report_2006.pdf>

Figure, graph, table or image  Figure 3 (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2010) shows a sustained downward trend in private sector house approvals  …

 

Note: if you have changed the data in any way, add ‘adapted from’ to the reference:

 

Figure 3 (adapted from

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2010) shows a sustained downward trend in private sector house approvals  …

Reference according to the publication type (e.g. book, journal article, web document).

 

Important: Every figure, graph or table you use must have a title, and it must be referenced and explained within your text.

 

Example of a title for a figure, graph, image or diagram:

Figure 2 – Private sector house approvals 2010 – 2011.

 

Example of a title for a table:

Table 6 – Oil production in OECD states 2000 – 2011.

 

Example:

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2010, Building approvals,

Australia, November 2011, viewed 23 January 2012,

<http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/mf/8731.0>

Theses, conference proceedings and papers, working papers

Type of source In-text reference Reference list entry
Thesis 

(online)

Britain’s power and prestige derived from its naval supremacy (Gibson 2012, p

23).

Author(s), Year, ‘Title of thesis’, Type of thesis,

Department/Faculty/College/School, University, viewed Day

Month Year, <URL> Example:

Gibson MW, 2012, ‘British strategy and oil, 1914-1923’,

PhD thesis, College of Arts, School of Humanities, University of

Glasgow, viewed 16 July 2013, <http://theses.gla.ac.uk/3160/>

Thesis 

(database)

The role of distance in retail gasoline market competition is analysed by Brewer (2007) who concludes that … Author(s), Year, ‘Title of thesis’, Type of thesis,

Department/Faculty/College/School, University, viewed Day Month Year, Database Name, item number or DOI (if available)

Example:

Brewer J, 2007, ‘Competition in the retail gasoline industry’,

PhD thesis, Department of Economics, University of Arizona, viewed 29 October 2008, ProQuest, 304894280.

Published conference paper or conference proceeding

(online)

 Ballsun-Stanton and Bunker

(2009) express the view that

Author(s), Year, ‘Title of conference paper’, Proceedings of the

Title of Conference, Conference Location, Conference Day(s)

Month, viewed Day Month Year, <URL> Example:

Ballsun-Stanton B and Bunker D,. 2009, ‘Philosophy of data

(PoD) and its importance to the discipline of information systems’, Proceedings of the Fifteenth Americas Conference on

Information Systems, San Francisco, 6 – 9 August, viewed 12

July 2010,  <http://aisel.aisnet.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1443>

Unpublished conference paper  

Mitchell and McKenzie

(2004) express the view that

Author(s), Year, ‘Title of conference paper’, paper presented at

Title of Conference, Conference Location, Conference Day(s) Month.

Example:

Mitchell H and McKenzie M, 2004, ‘The use of forecasting accuracy as an ARCH model selection tool’, paper presented at

Fourth International Scientific School MASR, St. Petersburg, Russia (Russian Federation), 22-25 June 2004.

Working paper Instances of corporate social responsibility occurred in the late 19th century (Smith 2003, p 1). Author(s), Year, ‘Title of paper’, Series Title, working paper (see note) number, Institution.

Example:

Smith NC, 2003, ‘Corporate social responsibility: not whether, but how?’, Centre for Marketing Working Paper, no 03-701, London Business School.

Note: If ‘working paper’ is not in the series title, place it before the paper no, for example:

Jones M, 2010, ‘Motion effects’, Current Issues in Marketing, working paper no 769, Victoria University of Wellington.